#Beef #exports stay sturdy, regardless of U.S. greenback energy

Exports can be a key driver for cattle and beef markets in 2023. How export demand holds up can be influenced by what occurs in foreign money markets. Beef export information proceed to indicate total development, however with a excessive stage of financial uncertainty worldwide, headwinds stay sturdy.

Knowledge for U.S. beef exports are reported in metric tons of product weight by the U.S. Division of Commerce. Portions are sometimes transformed from metric tons to kilos. These amount information can also be typically transformed from a product-weight foundation to a carcass-weight-equivalent (CWE) foundation. Knowledge are transformed to a CWE foundation to permit “apples-to-apples” comparisons to beef manufacturing information, that are reported in CWE. Beef exports accounted for 12.2% of complete annual manufacturing in 2021. The export share was up barely in 2022.

USDA’s Financial Analysis Service calculates and publishes beef commerce numbers on a CWE foundation. The newest official export numbers out there are for November. Knowledge are printed about 5 weeks after the shut of a month.

Exports declined in late 2022

November commerce information confirmed month-to-month U.S. beef import ranges have been the bottom in practically two years, whereas exports noticed solely the second year-over-year decline in 2022. November beef exports have been 277.0 million kilos, down 6.1% from November 2021. Decrease shipments have been seen to most main locations, with China down 10.7% from a yr earlier, Japan down 10.1%, Mexico down 5.4%, and South Korea down 3.0%. Exports to Canada posted a 7.9% year-over-year enhance.

January to November 2022 export quantity was 3.27 billion kilos, up 4.0% from the file tempo of 2021. 12 months-to-date exports to Japan, the main quantity marketplace for U.S. beef, have been down 1.7% from the identical interval final yr. January to November export quantity to South Korea was up 2.1% and more likely to break the 2021 quantity file when December information can be found. January to November beef exports to China have been up 22.3% and have already damaged the annual 2021 file. By way of November, exports to Mexico and Canada have been 11.6% beneath and 1.6% above final yr’s tempo, respectively. Beef exports to the Philippines, Singapore and Cambodia already set annual quantity information, and shipments to Thailand are on a file tempo. Export quantity to Taiwan via November can also be on a file tempo and well-positioned to high the 2020 file.

U.S. beef imports have been 241.0 million kilos in November, down 18.8% from November 2021, marking the bottom month-to-month import stage since February 2021 (198.4 million kilos). Decrease imports have been resulting from a 3.6% lower in shipments from Mexico, 20.9% decline from Australia, 32.1% decline from New Zealand and 62.6% decline from Brazil, which greater than offset a 3.2% enhance in shipments from Canada. By way of November, imports have been up 2.3% year-over-year, with Canada up 1.1%, Mexico up 10.7%, and Brazil up 42.0%. 12 months-to-date beef imports from Australia and New Zealand are down 3.4% and 22.9%, respectively.

Beef export outlook for 2023

The World Agricultural Provide and Demand Estimates, ready and launched by the World Agricultural Outlook Board, have beef exports declining by about 13% in 2023 in comparison with 2022, and imports declining about 1% ― with their forecasts reflecting the provision realities right here in america and overseas.

A weaker U.S. greenback is required to offset a number of the anticipated enhance in export costs. Any persevering with energy within the U.S. greenback wouldn’t bode properly for exports. A stronger U.S. greenback means worldwide patrons need to pay extra of their very own foreign money to purchase U.S. beef. A powerful U.S. greenback additionally tends to assist U.S. beef imports because it successfully lowers the worth of products in different markets.

The change price between two currencies specifies how a lot one foreign money is price by way of the opposite. There are two methods to specific change charges. One is the variety of items of overseas foreign money essential to buy one unit of home foreign money. The opposite means is the variety of items of home foreign money essential to buy one unit of overseas foreign money. For instance, let’s take the case of america (USD or US$) and Canada (CAD or $C). An change price of 0.7374 means US$0.7374 could be wanted to buy one CAD. The 0.7374 price may be expressed as requiring C$1.3561 to purchase one USD. In different phrases, 0.7374 is admittedly 1 divided by 1.3561, and 1.3561 is admittedly 1 divided by 0.7374.


The U.S. Greenback Index is used to measure the worth of the greenback towards a basket of foreign currency echange. The six currencies included within the U.S. Greenback Index are the Euro, Swiss franc, Japanese yen, Canadian greenback, British pound, and Swedish krona. Evaluating the common of day by day U.S. Greenback Index values in 2022 to 2021, the U.S. greenback appreciated 12.4% in 2022. It hit a two-decade excessive in September and remained at elevated ranges via early November, earlier than retreating some to finish the yr.

Why the U.S. greenback is strengthening

A stronger U.S. greenback implies ongoing uncertainty in world monetary markets and the flight to the perceived security of U.S. bonds. Within the quick time period, the change price is decided by the movement of a foreign money between two international locations. Forex movement is affected by rates of interest, commerce stability, buyers’ confidence, and points or expectations in a single nation relative to a different nation. A world recession would hit rising markets significantly arduous, and this has been an space of development for U.S. beef exports lately.

Whereas the U.S. Greenback Index is a barometer of the greenback’s collective worldwide worth, consideration at all times must be paid to particular person currencies. A number of currencies which might be crucial to the aggressive place of the U.S. usually are not included within the U.S. Greenback Index. Amongst these are the Mexican peso, South Korean gained, Brazilian actual and Australian greenback.


Determine 1 reveals the U.S. greenback versus the currencies of nations which might be main beef export opponents within the international market with america. In comparison with the Australian greenback, the U.S. greenback was about 8% costlier in 2022 than in 2021, whereas in comparison with the Brazilian actual, the U.S. greenback was about 4% cheaper in 2022 than in 2021. That, is the greenback bought weaker relative to the Brazilian actual (i.e., takes much less Brazilian reals to purchase one U.S. greenback) which is nice for export competitiveness whereas the U.S. greenback bought stronger relative to the Australian greenback (i.e., takes extra Australian {dollars} to purchase one U.S. greenback) which is dangerous for export competitiveness.

Determine 2 reveals the U.S. greenback versus the currencies of nations which might be huge patrons of beef. In comparison with the Japanese yen, the U.S. greenback was about 20% costlier in 2022 than in 2021. Equally, the U.S. greenback gained about 13% on the South Korean gained. The Mexican peso gained about 1% on the U.S. greenback in 2022 and is at its strongest relative stage since 2019.

It is very important do not forget that the change price isn’t the one consider commerce. Change price shifts are translated into value adjustments for items traded. Different occasions like drought and financial slowdowns can set off oblique results and have an effect on commerce ranges. It’s additionally necessary to do not forget that for high-value merchandise, like beef, amount demanded may be much less delicate to cost and foreign money fluctuations. A powerful greenback can be a hurdle for beef exports in 2023 ― however as historical past has proven, it won’t be a roadblock.

Schulz is an Extension ag economist with Iowa State College.